Brief Description of the FSM Census data

The census data covered the usual residents of the country as of the enumeration data (Sept. 19, 1994 and April 1, 2000). It was a de jure count of the population, meaning only people who had resided or intended to reside in the FSM for six months or more prior to the Census were counted. This excludes visitors visiting for less than six months but includes residents visiting overseas who intended to return in less than 6 months. The census also enumerated housing units or living quarters, both occupied and intended for occupancy (vacant) at the time of the census. It did not count buildings for businesses, offices, institutions, and other structures not used as living quarters.

From the mid to late 1980s a census was conducted in each of the states. These were de facto counts, meaning only persons who physically on the census reference night were counted. A national figure for 1989 was derived from these censuses by interpolation. The 1973 and 1980 censuses, and similar to the latest censuses, were de jure.

[Some of the demographic terms may appear in the preceding pages.]

– A –
Age-Dependency Ratio The ratio of persons in the ages defined as dependent (under 15 years and over 64 years) to persons in the ages defined as economically productive (15-64 years) in a population.
Age-Sex Structure–The composition of a population as determined by the number or proportion of males and females in each age category. The age-sex structure of a population is the cumulative result of past trends in fertility, mortality, and migration. Information on age-sex composition is essential for the description and analysis of many other types of demographic data. See also population pyramid.
Age-Specific Rate–Rate obtained for specific age groups (for example, age-specific fertility rate, death rate, marriage rate, illiteracy rate, or school enrollment rate).
Aging of Population–A process in which the proportions of adults and elderly increase in a population, while the proportions of children and adolescents decrease. This process results in a rise in the median age of the population. Aging occurs when fertility rates decline while life expectancy remains constant or improves at the older ages.
Antinatalist Policy–The policy of a government, society, or social group to slow population growth by attempting to limit the number of births.
– B –
Balancing Equation–A basic demographic formula used to estimate total population change between two points in time — or to estimate any unknown component of population change, provided that the other components are known. The balancing equation includes all components of population change: births, deaths, immigration, emigration, in-migration, and out-migration.
Birth Control–Practices employed by couples that permit sexual intercourse with reduced likelihood of conception and birth. The term birth control is often used synonymously with such terms as contraception, fertility control, and family planning. But birth control includes abortion to prevent a birth, whereas family planning methods explicitly do not include abortion.
Birth Rate (or crude birth rate)–The number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year. Not to be confused with the growth rate.
Birth Rate for Unmarried Women–The number of live births per 1,000 unmarried women (never married, widowed, or divorced) ages 15-49 in a given year.
– C –
Case Rate–The number of reported cases of a specific disease per 100,000 population in a given year.
Cause-Specific Death–Rate The number of deaths attributable to a specific cause per 100,000 population in a given year.
Census–A canvass of a given area, resulting in an enumeration of the entire population and often the compilation of other demographic, social, and economic information pertaining to that population at a specific time. See also survey.
Childbearing Years–The reproductive age span of women, assumed for statistical purposes to be 15-44 or 15-49 years of age.
Child-Woman Ratio–The number of children under age 5 per 1,000 women ages 15-44 or 15-49 in a population in a given year. This crude fertility measure, based on basic census data, is sometimes used when more specific fertility information is not available.
Closed Population–A population with no migratory flow either in or out, so that changes in population size occur only through births and deaths.
Cohort–A group of people sharing a common temporal demographic experience who are observed through time. For example, the birth cohort of 1900 is the people born in that year. There are also marriage cohorts, school class cohorts, and so forth.
Cohort Analysis–Observation of a cohort’s demographic behavior through life or through many periods; for example, examining the fertility behavior of the cohort of people born between 1940 and 1945 through their entire childbearing years. Rates derived from such cohort analyses are cohort measures. Compare with period analysis.
Completed Fertility Rate–The number of children born per woman to a cohort of women by the end of their childbearing years.
Consensual Union–Cohabitation by an unmarried couple for an extended period of time. Although such unions may be quite stable, they are not regarded as legal marriages in official statistics.
Contraceptive prevalence–Percentage of couples currently using a contraceptive method.
Crude Rate–Rate of any demographic event computed for an entire population.
– D –
Death Rate (or crude death rate)–The number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.
Demographic Transition–The historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population. The decline of mortality usually precedes the decline in fertility, thus resulting in rapid population growth during the transition period.
Demography–The scientific study of human populations, including their sizes, compositions, distributions, densities, growth, and other characteristics, as well as the causes and consequences of changes in these factors.
Dependency Ratio–The ratio of the economically dependent part of the population to the productive part; arbitrarily defined as the ratio of the elderly (ages 65 and older) plus the young (under age 15) to the population in the working ages (ages 15-64).
Depopulation–The state of population decline.
Divorce Rate (or crude divorce rate)–The number of divorces per 1,000 population in a given year.
Doubling Time–The number of years required for the population of an area to double its present size, given the current rate of population growth.
– E –
Emigration–The process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semipermanent residence in another.
Emigration Rate–The number of emigrants departing an area of origin per 1,000 population in that area of origin in a given year.
Ethnicity–The cultural practices, language, cuisine, and traditions — not biological or physical differences — used to distinguish groups of people.
– F –
Family Planning–The conscious effort of couples to regulate the number and spacing of births through artificial and natural methods of contraception. Family planning connotes conception control to avoid pregnancy and abortion, but it also includes efforts of couples to induce pregnancy.
Fecundity–The physiological capacity of a woman to produce a child.
Fertility–The actual reproductive performance of an individual, a couple, a group, or a population. See general fertility rate.
– G –
General Fertility Rate–The number of live births per 1,000 women ages 15-44 or 15-49 years in a given year.
Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR)–The average number of daughters that would be born alive to a woman (or group of women) during her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year. See also net reproduction rate and total fertility rate.
Growth Rate–The number of people added to (or subtracted from) a population in a year due to natural increase and net migration expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the time period.
– H –
High-risk pregnancies–Pregnancies occurring under the following conditions: too closely spaces, too frequent, mother too young or too old, or accompanied by such high-risk factors as high blood pressure or diabetes.
– I –
Illegal Alien (sometimes called undocumented alien)–A foreigner who has entered a country without inspection or without proper documents, or who has violated the terms of legal admission to the country, for example, by overstaying the duration of a tourist or student visa.
Immigration–The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semipermanent residence.
Immigration Rate–The number of immigrants arriving at a destination per 1,000 population at that destination in a given year.
Incidence Rate–The number of persons contracting a disease per 1,000 population at risk, for a given period of time.
Infant Mortality Rate–The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1,000 live births in a given year.
In-migration–The process of entering one administrative subdivision of a country (such as a province or state) from another subdivision to take up residence.
– L –
Life Expectancy–The average number of additional years a person could expect to live if current mortality trends were to continue for the rest of that person’s life. Most commonly cited as life expectancy at birth.
Life Span–The maximum age that human beings could reach under optimum conditions.
Life Table–A tabular display of life expectancy and the probability of dying at each age (or age group) for a given population, according to the age-specific death rates prevailing at that time. The life table gives an organized, complete picture of a population’s mortality.
– M –
Marital Fertility Rate–Number of live births to married women per 1,000 married women ages 15-44 or 15-49 in a given year.
Marriage Rate (or crude marriage rate)–The number of marriages per 1,000 population in a given year.
Maternal Mortality Ratio–The number of women who die as a result of pregnancy and childbirth complications per 100,000 live births in a given year.
Mean Age–The mathematical average age of all the members of a population.
Median Age–The age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.
Migration–The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semipermanent residence. Divided into international migration (migration between countries) and internal migration (migration within a country).
Mobility–The geographic movement of people.

Morbidity–The frequency of disease, illness, injuries, and disabilities in a population.

More Developed Countries–Following United Nations’ definitions, “more developed countries,” or industrialized countries (or regions), include Europe (including all of Russia), the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.
Mortality–Deaths as a component of population change.
– N –
Natality–Births as a component of population change.
Natural Increase (or Decrease)–The surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths in a population in a given time period.
Neonatal Mortality Rate–The number of deaths to infants under 28 days of age in a given year per 1,000 live births in that year.
Net Migration–The net effect of immigration and emigration on an area’s population in a given time period, expressed as an increase or decrease.
Net Migration Rate–The net effect of immigration and emigration on an area’s population, expressed as an increase or decrease per 1,000 population of the area in a given year.
Net Reproduction Rate (NRR)–The average number of daughters that would be born to a woman (or a group of women) if she passed through her lifetime conforming to the age-specific fertility and mortality rates of a given year. This rate is similar to the gross reproduction rate but takes into account that some women will die before completing their childbearing years. An NRR of one means that each generation of mothers is having exactly enough daughters to replace itself in the population. See also total fertility rate and replacement-level fertility.
Nuptiality–The frequency, characteristics, and dissolution of marriages in a population.
– O –
“Old” Population–A population with a relatively high proportion of middle-age and elderly persons, a high median age, and thus a lower growth potential.
Out-migration–The process of leaving one subdivision of a country to take up residence in another.
– P –
Parity–The number of children previously born alive to a woman; for example, ‘two-parity women’ are women who have had two children and ‘zero-parity women’ have had no live births.
Perinatal Mortality Rate–The number of fetal deaths after 28 weeks of pregnancy (late fetal deaths) plus the number of deaths to infants under 7 days of age per 1,000 live births.
Period Analysis–Observation of a population at a specific period of time. Such an analysis in effect takes a ‘snapshot’ of a population in a relatively short time period — for example, one year. Most rates are derived from period data and therefore are period rates. Compare to cohort analysis.
Population–A group of objects or organisms of the same kind.
Population Control–A broad concept that addresses the relationship between fertility, mortality, and migration, but is most commonly used to refer to efforts to slow population growth through action to lower fertility. It should not be confused with family planning. See also family planning.
Population Density–Population per unit of land area; for example, people per square mile or people per square kilometer of arable land.
Population Distribution–The patterns of settlement and dispersal of a population.
“Population Explosion” (or “Population Bomb”)–Expressions used to describe the 20th century worldwide trend of rapid population growth, resulting from a world birth rate much higher than the world death rate.
Population Increase–The total population increase resulting from the interaction of births, deaths, and migration in a population in a given period of time.
Population Momentum–The tendency for population growth to continue beyond the time that replacement-level fertility has been achieved because of the relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
Population Policy–Explicit or implicit measures instituted by a government to influence population size, growth, distribution, or composition.
Population Projection–Computation of future changes in population numbers, given certain assumptions about future trends in the rates of fertility, mortality, and migration. Demographers often issue low, medium, and high projections of the same population, based on different assumptions of how these rates will change in the future.
Population Pyramid–A bar chart, arranged vertically, that shows the distribution of a population by age and sex. By convention, the younger ages are at the bottom, with males on the left and females on the right.
Population Register–A government data collection system in which the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of all or part of the population are continuously recorded. Denmark, Sweden, and Israel are among the countries that maintain universal registers for demographic purposes — recording the major events (birth, marriage, moves, death) that happen to each individual so that up-to-date information on the whole population is readily available. Other countries, like the United States, keep partial registers, such as social security and voter registration, for administrative purposes.
Post-Neonatal Mortality Rate–The annual number of deaths of infants ages 28 days to 1 year per 1,000 live births in a given year.
Prevalence Rate–The number of people having a particular disease at a given point in time per 1,000 population at risk.
“Push-Pull” Hypothesis–A migration theory that suggests that circumstances at the place of origin (such as poverty and unemployment) repel or push people out of that place to other places that exert a positive attraction or pull (such as a high standard of living or job opportunities).
– R –
Rate of Natural Increase (or Decrease)–The rate at which a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a given year due to a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths, expressed as a percentage of the base population.
Replacement–Level Fertility–The level of fertility at which a couple has only enough children to replace themselves, or about two children per couple.
Reproductive Age–See childbearing years.
– S –
Sex Ratio–The number of males per 100 females in a population.
Social Mobility–A change in status (for example, an occupational change).
Stable Population–A population with an unchanging rate of growth and an unchanging age composition as a result of age-specific birth and death rates that have remained constant over a sufficient period of time.
Survey–A canvass of selected persons or households in a population usually used to infer demographic characteristics or trends for a larger segment or all of the population. See also census.
Survival Rate–The proportion of persons in a specified group (age, sex, or health status) alive at the beginning of an interval (such as a five-year period) who survive to the end of the interval.
– T –
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)–The average number of children that would be born alive to a woman (or group of women) during her lifetime if she were to pass through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year. This rate is sometimes stated as the number of children women are having today. See also gross reproduction rate and net reproduction rate.
– U –
Urban–Countries differ in the way they classify population as ‘urban’ or ‘rural.’ Typically, a community or settlement with a population of 2,000 or more is considered urban. A listing of country definitions is published annually in the United Nations Demographic Yearbook.
Urbanization–Growth in the proportion of a population living in urban areas.
– V –
Vital statistics–Demographic data on births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages and divorces.
– Y –
“Young” Population–A population with a relatively high proportion of children, adolescents, and young adults; a low median age; and thus a high growth potential.
– Z –
Zero population growth–A population in equilibrium, with a growth rate of zero, achieved when births plus immigration equal deaths plus emigration.
Definitions extracted from the Population Reference Bureau’s Population Handbook. Get the booklet here.
Copy right © FSM Division of Statistics – 2006